# Feedforward from known disturbances

This example will demonstrate how you can make use of a known/measurable disturbance and achieve effective disturbance rejection using an $\mathcal{H}_2$ controller. For simplicity, we will consider a simple first-order system $G$

\[\begin{aligned} \dot{x} &= -ax + b(u + d) \\ y_x &= cx + e_y \\ y_d &= d + e_d \end{aligned}\]

where a load disturbance $d$ is acting on the input of the system. We have access to a measurement $y_x$ of the state and a measurement $y_d$ of the disturbance. Both of them are assumed corrupted by measurement noise (this fact is crucial, if there is no measurement noise on the disturbance measurement, the controller will ignore the measurement of the state).

We start by defining the process model.

```
using RobustAndOptimalControl, ControlSystemsBase, Plots, LinearAlgebra
G = ss(tf(1, [10, 1])) # Process model
```

```
StateSpace{Continuous, Float64}
A =
-0.1
B =
0.25
C =
0.4
D =
0.0
Continuous-time state-space model
```

We then choose the parameters of the $\mathcal{H}_2$ controller, i.e., noise variances and how much we penalize state and inputs. When tuning a $\mathcal{H}_2$ controller, we do not choose matrices in quite the same way as when we tune an LQG controller, but an LQG controller is actually a $\mathcal{H}_2$ in disguise, see sec. 9.3.3 in Skogestad for more details.

We will partition the system according to

\[\begin{bmatrix} \dot x \\ \hline z_y \\ z_u \\ \hline y_x \\ y_d \end{bmatrix}= \begin{bmatrix} A & B_d & 0 & 0 & B_u \\ \hline C_z & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & r \\ \hline C & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} x \\ \hline d \\ e_y \\ e_d \\ \hline u \end{bmatrix}\]

where $C_z = qC$ and $B_d = w_d B$.

```
σye = 1 # standard deviation of output measurement
σyd = 10 # standard deviation of known-disturbance measurement
wd = 100 # Disturbance suppression weight
q = 10 # Penalty on output
r = 0.1 # Penalty on input
Ge = ExtendedStateSpace(G,
B1 = [wd*G.B 0 0], # Load disturbance, y measurement noise, d measurement noise
C1 = [q*G.C; 0G.C], # Q1 = C1'C1
C2 = [G.C; 0G.C], # Measure output and load disturbance, load disturbance is not a function of state
D12 = [0; r], # Penalize control action Q2 = D12'D12
D21 = [0 σye 0; 1 0 σyd], # direct feedthrough of load disturbance and measurement noise
)
# We design be optimizing both H2 and H∞ just for fun
K, Cl = h2synthesize(Ge, 100)
K∞, γ, mats = hinfsynthesize(Ge)
Cl∞ = lft(Ge, K∞)
```

```
StateSpace{Continuous, Float64}
A =
-0.1 -356.8600064473575
13.851172409650232 -363.9081306683164
B =
25.0 0.0 0.0
0.2475247524752475 34.62793102412558 2.475247524752475
C =
4.0 0.0
0.0 -142.744002578943
D =
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
Continuous-time state-space model
```

We perform a simulation to verify the systems performance in the presence of a step disturbance in $d$. We create a function `disturbance`

that takes the state and time, and outputs a step at the disturbance input between $10 < t < 20$. The other two inputs correspond to $e_y, e_d$, where you can add some measurement noise for more realistic simulations.

```
Ts = 0.01
disturbance = (x, t) -> [10 < t < 20; 0randn(); 0randn()] # This is our load disturbance, a step at ``t = 10``
res = lsim(c2d(Cl, Ts), disturbance, 40)
res∞ = lsim(c2d(Cl∞, Ts), disturbance, 40)
plot([res, res∞], lab=["H2" "" "H∞" ""], ylab=["zy" "zu"])
```

It looks like the disturbance, that had a magnitude of 1, has been amplified quite dramatically! However, the output is scaled by the performance weights $w_d*q = 1000$, and factoring in this, the disturbance has been suppressed by a factor 50 for the $\mathcal{H}_2$ controller and 130 for the $\mathcal{H}_∞$ controller.

Before we feel confident about deploying the LQG controller, we investigate its closed-loop properties. The (negative) feedback controller is given by `-K[1,1]`

(the - sign since `h2synthesize`

returns a positive-feedback controller).

```
w = exp10.(LinRange(-3, 4, 300))
gangoffourplot(G, [-K[1,1], -K∞[1,1]], w, lab=["H2" "H∞"], legend = :bottomright)
```

We see that our design led to a system with reasonable disturbance-rejection properties, however, since we assume that we can measure the disturbance, it's relevant to also consider the transfer function from this disturbance to the output. This transfer function is given by `Cl[1,1]`

and has been scaled by the disturbance-suppression weight $w_d$ and the performance penalty weight $q$, so we rescale it to get back the original units.

`bodeplot!((1/q/wd)Cl[1,1], w, plotphase=false, sp=2, lab="Gyd", l=:dash)`

we see that it overlaps completely with the classical sensitivity function `PS`

, which is expected.

Comparing the $\mathcal{H}_2$ controller with the $\mathcal{H}_∞$ controller, we see that the latter pushes down the peak in the sensitivity function further and also increases the closed-loop bandwidth, at the expense of considerably higher high-frequency gain in the controller.