# Synthesis

For $H_\infty$ and $H_2$ synthesis as well as more advanced LQG design, see RobustAndOptimalControl.

ControlSystemsBase.kalmanMethod
kalman(Continuous, A, C, R1, R2)
kalman(Discrete, A, C, R1, R2; direct = false)
kalman(sys, R1, R2; direct = false)

Calculate the optimal Kalman gain.

If direct = true, the observer gain is computed for the pair (A, CA) instead of (A,C). This option is intended to be used together with the option direct = true to observer_controller. Ref: "Computer-Controlled Systems" pp 140. direct = false is sometimes referred to as a "delayed" estimator, while direct = true is a "current" estimator.

To obtain a discrete-time approximation to a continuous-time LQG problem, the function c2d can be used to obtain corresponding discrete-time covariance matrices.

To obtain an LTISystem that represents the Kalman filter, pass the obtained Kalman feedback gain into observer_filter. To obtain an LQG controller, pass the obtained Kalman feedback gain as well as a state-feedback gain computed using lqr into observer_controller.

The args...; kwargs... are sent to the Riccati solver, allowing specification of cross-covariance etc. See ?MatrixEquations.arec/ared for more help.

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ControlSystemsBase.lqrMethod
lqr(sys, Q, R)
lqr(Continuous, A, B, Q, R, args...; kwargs...)
lqr(Discrete, A, B, Q, R, args...; kwargs...)

Calculate the optimal gain matrix K for the state-feedback law u = -K*x that minimizes the cost function:

J = integral(x'Qx + u'Ru, 0, inf) for the continuous-time model dx = Ax + Bu. J = sum(x'Qx + u'Ru, 0, inf) for the discrete-time model x[k+1] = Ax[k] + Bu[k].

Solve the LQR problem for state-space system sys. Works for both discrete and continuous time systems.

The args...; kwargs... are sent to the Riccati solver, allowing specification of cross-covariance etc. See ?MatrixEquations.arec / ared for more help.

To obtain also the solution to the Riccati equation and the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system as well, call ControlSystemsBase.MatrixEquations.arec / ared instead (note the different order of the arguments to these functions).

To obtain a discrete-time approximation to a continuous-time LQR problem, the function c2d can be used to obtain corresponding discrete-time cost matrices.

Examples

Continuous time

using LinearAlgebra # For identity matrix I
using Plots
A = [0 1; 0 0]
B = [0; 1]
C = [1 0]
sys = ss(A,B,C,0)
Q = I
R = I
L = lqr(sys,Q,R) # lqr(Continuous,A,B,Q,R) can also be used

u(x,t) = -L*x # Form control law,
t=0:0.1:5
x0 = [1,0]
y, t, x, uout = lsim(sys,u,t,x0=x0)
plot(t,x', lab=["Position" "Velocity"], xlabel="Time [s]")

Discrete time

using LinearAlgebra # For identity matrix I
using Plots
Ts = 0.1
A = [1 Ts; 0 1]
B = [0;1]
C = [1 0]
sys = ss(A, B, C, 0, Ts)
Q = I
R = I
L = lqr(Discrete, A,B,Q,R) # lqr(sys,Q,R) can also be used

u(x,t) = -L*x # Form control law,
t=0:Ts:5
x0 = [1,0]
y, t, x, uout = lsim(sys,u,t,x0=x0)
plot(t,x', lab=["Position"  "Velocity"], xlabel="Time [s]")
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ControlSystemsBase.placeFunction
place(A, B, p, opt=:c; direct = false)
place(sys::StateSpace, p, opt=:c; direct = false)

Calculate the gain matrix K such that A - BK has eigenvalues p.

place(A, C, p, opt=:o)
place(sys::StateSpace, p, opt=:o)

Calculate the observer gain matrix L such that A - LC has eigenvalues p.

If direct = true and opt = :o, the the observer gain K is calculated such that A - KCA has eigenvalues p, this option is to be used together with direct = true in observer_controller.

Note: only apply direct = true to discrete-time systems.

Ref: "Computer-Controlled Systems" pp 140.

Uses Ackermann's formula for SISO systems and place_knvd for MIMO systems.

Please note that this function can be numerically sensitive, solving the placement problem in extended precision might be beneficial.

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ControlSystemsBase.place_knvdMethod
place_knvd(A::AbstractMatrix, B, λ; verbose = false, init = :s)

Robust pole placement using the algorithm from

"Robust Pole Assignment in Linear State Feedback", Kautsky, Nichols, Van Dooren

This implementation uses "method 0" for the X-step and the QR factorization for all factorizations.

This function will be called automatically when place is called with a MIMO system.

Arguments:

• init: Determines the initialization strategy for the iterations for find the X matrix. Possible choices are :id (default), :rand, :s.
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ControlSystemsBase.c2dFunction
sysd = c2d(sys::AbstractStateSpace{<:Continuous}, Ts, method=:zoh; w_prewarp=0)
Gd = c2d(G::TransferFunction{<:Continuous}, Ts, method=:zoh)

Convert the continuous-time system sys into a discrete-time system with sample time Ts, using the specified method (:zoh, :foh, :fwdeuler or :tustin).

method = :tustin performs a bilinear transform with prewarp frequency w_prewarp.

• w_prewarp: Frequency (rad/s) for pre-warping when using the Tustin method, has no effect for other methods.

See also c2d_x0map

Extended help

ZoH sampling is exact for linear systems with piece-wise constant inputs (step invariant), i.e., the solution obtained using lsim is not approximative (modulu machine precision). ZoH sampling is commonly used to discretize continuous-time plant models that are to be controlled using a discrete-time controller.

FoH sampling is exact for linear systems with piece-wise linear inputs (ramp invariant), this is a good choice for simulation of systems with smooth continuous inputs.

To approximate the behavior of a continuous-time system well in the frequency domain, the :tustin (trapezoidal / bilinear) method may be most appropriate. In this case, the pre-warping argument can be used to ensure that the frequency response of the discrete-time system matches the continuous-time system at a given frequency. The tustin transformation alters the meaning of the state components, while ZoH and FoH preserve the meaning of the state components. The Tustin method is commonly used to discretize a continuous-time controller.

The forward-Euler method generally requires the sample time to be very small relative to the time constants of the system, and its use is generally discouraged.

Classical rules-of-thumb for selecting the sample time for control design dictate that Ts should be chosen as $0.2 ≤ ωgc⋅Ts ≤ 0.6$ where $ωgc$ is the gain-crossover frequency (rad/s).

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ControlSystemsBase.c2dMethod
Qd     = c2d(sys::StateSpace{Continuous}, Qc::Matrix, Ts;             opt=:o)
Qd, Rd = c2d(sys::StateSpace{Continuous}, Qc::Matrix, Rc::Matrix, Ts; opt=:o)
Qd     = c2d(sys::StateSpace{Discrete},   Qc::Matrix;                 opt=:o)
Qd, Rd = c2d(sys::StateSpace{Discrete},   Qc::Matrix, Rc::Matrix;     opt=:o)

Sample a continuous-time covariance or LQR cost matrix to fit the provided discrete-time system.

If opt = :o (default), the matrix is assumed to be a covariance matrix. The measurement covariance R may also be provided. If opt = :c, the matrix is instead assumed to be a cost matrix for an LQR problem.

Note

Measurement covariance (here called Rc) is usually estimated in discrete time, and is in this case not dependent on the sample rate. Discretization of the measurement covariance only makes sense when a continuous-time controller has been designed and the closest corresponding discrete-time controller is desired.

The method used comes from theorem 5 in the reference below.

Ref: "Discrete-time Solutions to the Continuous-time Differential Lyapunov Equation With Applications to Kalman Filtering", Patrik Axelsson and Fredrik Gustafsson

On singular covariance matrices: The traditional double integrator with covariance matrix Q = diagm([0,σ²]) can not be sampled with this method. Instead, the input matrix ("Cholesky factor") of Q must be manually kept track of, e.g., the noise of variance σ² enters like N = [0, 1] which is sampled using ZoH and becomes Nd = [1/2 Ts^2; Ts] which results in the covariance matrix σ² * Nd * Nd'.

Example:

The following example designs a continuous-time LQR controller for a resonant system. This is simulated with OrdinaryDiffEq to allow the ODE integrator to also integrate the continuous-time LQR cost (the cost is added as an additional state variable). We then discretize both the system and the cost matrices and simulate the same thing. The discretization of an LQR contorller in this way is sometimes refered to as lqrd.

using ControlSystemsBase, LinearAlgebra, OrdinaryDiffEq, Test
sysc = DemoSystems.resonant()
x0 = ones(sysc.nx)
Qc = [1 0.01; 0.01 2] # Continuous-time cost matrix for the state
Rc = I(1)             # Continuous-time cost matrix for the input

L = lqr(sysc, Qc, Rc)
dynamics = function (xc, p, t)
x = xc[1:sysc.nx]
u = -L*x
dx = sysc.A*x + sysc.B*u
dc = dot(x, Qc, x) + dot(u, Rc, u)
return [dx; dc]
end
prob = ODEProblem(dynamics, [x0; 0], (0.0, 10.0))
sol = solve(prob, Tsit5(), reltol=1e-8, abstol=1e-8)
cc = sol.u[end][end] # Continuous-time cost

# Discrete-time version
Ts = 0.01
sysd = c2d(sysc, Ts)
Qd, Rd = c2d(sysd, Qc, Rc, opt=:c)
Ld = lqr(sysd, Qd, Rd)
sold = lsim(sysd, (x, t) -> -Ld*x, 0:Ts:10, x0 = x0)
function cost(x, u, Q, R)
dot(x, Q, x) + dot(u, R, u)
end
cd = cost(sold.x, sold.u, Qd, Rd) # Discrete-time cost
@test cc ≈ cd rtol=0.01           # These should be similar
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ControlSystemsBase.c2d_x0mapFunction
sysd, x0map = c2d_x0map(sys::AbstractStateSpace{<:Continuous}, Ts, method=:zoh; w_prewarp=0)

Returns the discretization sysd of the system sys and a matrix x0map that transforms the initial conditions to the discrete domain by x0_discrete = x0map*[x0; u0]

See c2d for further details.

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ControlSystemsBase.d2cFunction
Qc = d2c(sys::AbstractStateSpace{<:Discrete}, Qd::AbstractMatrix; opt=:o)

Resample discrete-time covariance matrix belonging to sys to the equivalent continuous-time matrix.

The method used comes from theorem 5 in the reference below.

If opt = :c, the matrix is instead assumed to be a cost matrix for an LQR problem.

Ref: Discrete-time Solutions to the Continuous-time Differential Lyapunov Equation With Applications to Kalman Filtering Patrik Axelsson and Fredrik Gustafsson

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ControlSystemsBase.d2cFunction
d2c(sys::AbstractStateSpace{<:Discrete}, method::Symbol = :zoh; w_prewarp=0)

Convert discrete-time system to a continuous time system, assuming that the discrete-time system was discretized using method. Available methods are :zoh, :fwdeuler´.

• w_prewarp: Frequency for pre-warping when using the Tustin method, has no effect for other methods.

See also d2c_exact.

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ControlSystemsBase.d2c_exactFunction
d2c_exact(sys::AbstractStateSpace{<:Discrete}, method = :causal)

Translate a discrete-time system to a continuous-time system by one of the substitutions

• $z^{-1} = e^{-sT_s}$ if method = :causal (default)
• $z = e^{sT_s}$ if method = :acausal

The translation is exact in the frequency domain, i.e., the frequency response of the resulting continuous-time system is identical to the frequency response of the discrete-time system.

This method of translation is useful when analyzing hybrid continuous/discrete systems in the frequency domain and high accuracy is required.

The resulting system will be be a static system in feedback with pure delays. When method = :causal, the delays will be positive, resulting in a causal system that can be simulated in the time domain. When method = :acausal, the delays will be negative, resulting in an acausal system that can not be simulated in the time domain. The acausal translation results in a smaller system with half as many delay elements in the feedback path.

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ControlSystemsBase.dabMethod
X,Y = dab(A,B,C)

Solves the Diophantine-Aryabhatta-Bezout identity

$AX + BY = C$, where $A, B, C, X$ and $Y$ are polynomials and $deg Y = deg A - 1$.

See Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory and Design, Third Edition Karl Johan Åström, Björn Wittenmark

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ControlSystemsBase.rstdMethod
R,S,T = rstd(BPLUS,BMINUS,A,BM1,AM,AO,AR,AS)
R,S,T = rstd(BPLUS,BMINUS,A,BM1,AM,AO,AR)
R,S,T = rstd(BPLUS,BMINUS,A,BM1,AM,AO)

Polynomial synthesis in discrete time.

Polynomial synthesis according to "Computer-Controlled Systems" ch 10 to design a controller $R(q) u(k) = T(q) r(k) - S(q) y(k)$

Inputs:

• BPLUS : Part of open loop numerator
• BMINUS : Part of open loop numerator
• A : Open loop denominator
• BM1 : Additional zeros
• AM : Closed loop denominator
• AO : Observer polynomial
• AR : Pre-specified factor of R,

e.g integral part [1, -1]^k

• AS : Pre-specified factor of S,

e.g notch filter [1, 0, w^2]

Outputs: R,S,T : Polynomials in controller

See function dab how the solution to the Diophantine- Aryabhatta-Bezout identity is chosen.

See Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory and Design, Third Edition Karl Johan Åström, Björn Wittenmark

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ControlSystemsBase.zpconvMethod
zpc(a,r,b,s)

form conv(a,r) + conv(b,s) where the lengths of the polynomials are equalized by zero-padding such that the addition can be carried out

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ControlSystemsBase.laglinkMethod
laglink(a, M; [Ts])

Returns a phase retarding link, the rule of thumb a = 0.1ωc guarantees less than 6 degrees phase margin loss. The bode curve will go from M, bend down at a/M and level out at 1 for frequencies > a

$$$\dfrac{s + a}{s + a/M} = M \dfrac{1 + s/a}{1 + sM/a}$$$
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ControlSystemsBase.leadlinkFunction
leadlink(b, N, K=1; [Ts])

Returns a phase advancing link, the top of the phase curve is located at ω = b√(N) where the link amplification is K√(N) The bode curve will go from K, bend up at b and level out at KN for frequencies > bN

The phase advance at ω = b√(N) can be plotted as a function of N with leadlinkcurve()

Values of N < 1 will give a phase retarding link.

$$$KN \dfrac{s + b}{s + bN} = K \dfrac{1 + s/b}{1 + s/(bN)}$$$

See also leadlinkat laglink

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ControlSystemsBase.leadlinkatFunction
leadlinkat(ω, N, K=1; [Ts])

Returns a phase advancing link, the top of the phase curve is located at ω where the link amplification is K√(N) The bode curve will go from K, bend up at ω/√(N) and level out at KN for frequencies > ω√(N)

The phase advance at ω can be plotted as a function of N with leadlinkcurve()

Values of N < 1 will give a phase retarding link.

See also leadlink laglink

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ControlSystemsBase.leadlinkcurveFunction
leadlinkcurve(start=1)

Plot the phase advance as a function of N for a lead link (phase advance link) If an input argument start is given, the curve is plotted from start to 10, else from 1 to 10.

See also leadlink, leadlinkat

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ControlSystemsBase.loopshapingPIMethod
C, kp, ki, fig, CF = loopshapingPI(P, ωp; ϕl, rl, phasemargin, form=:standard, doplot=false, Tf, F)

Selects the parameters of a PI-controller (on parallel form) such that the Nyquist curve of P at the frequency ωp is moved to rl exp(i ϕl)

The parameters can be returned as one of several common representations chosen by form, the options are

• :standard - $K_p(1 + 1/(T_i s) + T_d s)$
• :series - $K_c(1 + 1/(τ_i s))(τ_d s + 1)$
• :parallel - $K_p + K_i/s + K_d s$

If phasemargin is supplied (in degrees), ϕl is selected such that the curve is moved to an angle of phasemargin - 180 degrees

If no rl is given, the magnitude of the curve at ωp is kept the same and only the phase is affected, the same goes for ϕl if no phasemargin is given.

• Tf: An optional time constant for second-order measurement noise filter on the form tf(1, [Tf^2, 2*Tf/sqrt(2), 1]) to make the controller strictly proper.
• F: A pre-designed filter to use instead of the default second-order filter that is used if Tf is given.
• doplot plot the gangoffourplot and nyquistplot of the system.
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ControlSystemsBase.loopshapingPIDMethod
C, kp, ki, kd, fig, CF = loopshapingPID(P, ω; Mt = 1.3, ϕt=75, form=:standard, doplot=false, lb=-10, ub=10, Tf = 1/1000ω, F = nothing)

Selects the parameters of a PID-controller such that the Nyquist curve of the loop-transfer function $L = PC$ at the frequency ω is tangent to the circle where the magnitude of $T = PC / (1+PC)$ equals Mt. ϕt denotes the positive angle in degrees between the real axis and the tangent point.

The default values for Mt and ϕt are chosen to give a good design for processes with inertia, and may need tuning for simpler processes.

The gain of the resulting controller is generally increasing with increasing ω and Mt.

Arguments:

• P: A SISO plant.
• ω: The specification frequency.
• Mt: The magnitude of the complementary sensitivity function at the specification frequency, $|T(iω)|$.
• ϕt: The positive angle in degrees between the real axis and the tangent point.
• doplot: If true, gang of four and Nyquist plots will be returned in fig.
• lb: log10 of lower bound for kd.
• ub: log10 of upper bound for kd.
• Tf: Time constant for second-order measurement noise filter on the form tf(1, [Tf^2, 2*Tf/sqrt(2), 1]) to make the controller strictly proper. A practical controller typically sets this time constant slower than the default, e.g., Tf = 1/100ω or Tf = 1/10ω
• F: A pre-designed filter to use instead of the default second-order filter.

The parameters can be returned as one of several common representations chosen by form, the options are

• :standard - $K_p(1 + 1/(T_i s) + T_ds)$
• :series - $K_c(1 + 1/(τ_i s))(τ_d s + 1)$
• :parallel - $K_p + K_i/s + K_d s$

Example:

P  = tf(1, [1,0,0]) # A double integrator
Mt = 1.3  # Maximum magnitude of complementary sensitivity
ω  = 1    # Frequency at which the specification holds
C, kp, ki, kd, fig, CF = loopshapingPID(P, ω; Mt, ϕt = 75, doplot=true)
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ControlSystemsBase.pidFunction
C = pid(param_p, param_i, [param_d]; form=:standard, state_space=false, [Tf], [Ts])

Calculates and returns a PID controller.

The form can be chosen as one of the following

• :standard - Kp*(1 + 1/(Ti*s) + Td*s)
• :series - Kc*(1 + 1/(τi*s))*(τd*s + 1)
• :parallel - Kp + Ki/s + Kd*s

If state_space is set to true, either Kd has to be zero or a positive Tf has to be provided for creating a filter on the input to allow for a state space realization. The filter used is 1 / (1 + s*Tf + (s*Tf)^2/2), where Tf can typically be chosen as Ti/N for a PI controller and Td/N for a PID controller, and N is commonly in the range 2 to 20. The state space will be returned on controllable canonical form.

For a discrete controller a positive Ts can be supplied. In this case, the continuous-time controller is discretized using the Tustin method.

Examples

C1 = pid(3.3, 1, 2)                             # Kd≠0 works without filter in tf form
C2 = pid(3.3, 1, 2; Tf=0.3, state_space=true)   # In statespace a filter is needed
C3 = pid(2., 3, 0; Ts=0.4, state_space=true)    # Discrete

The functions pid_tf and pid_ss are also exported. They take the same parameters and is what is actually called in pid based on the state_space parameter.

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ControlSystemsBase.pidplotsMethod
pidplots(P, args...; params_p, params_i, params_d=0, form=:standard, ω=0, grid=false, kwargs...)

Display the relevant plots related to closing the loop around process P with a PID controller supplied in params on one of the following forms:

• :standard - Kp*(1 + 1/(Ti*s) + Td*s)
• :series - Kc*(1 + 1/(τi*s))*(τd*s + 1)
• :parallel - Kp + Ki/s + Kd*s

The sent in values can be arrays to evaluate multiple different controllers, and if grid=true it will be a grid search over all possible combinations of the values.

Available plots are :gof for Gang of four, :nyquist, :controller for a bode plot of the controller TF and :pz for pole-zero maps and should be supplied as additional arguments to the function.

One can also supply a frequency vector ω to be used in Bode and Nyquist plots.

See also loopshapingPI, stabregionPID

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ControlSystemsBase.placePIMethod
C, kp, ki = placePI(P, ω₀, ζ; form=:standard)

Selects the parameters of a PI-controller such that the poles of closed loop between P and C are placed to match the poles of s^2 + 2ζω₀s + ω₀^2.

The parameters can be returned as one of several common representations chose by form, the options are

• :standard - $K_p(1 + 1/(T_i s))$
• :series - $K_c(1 + 1/(τ_i s))$ (equivalent to above for PI controllers)
• :parallel - $K_p + K_i/s$

C is the returned transfer function of the controller and params is a named tuple containing the parameters. The parameters can be accessed as params.Kp or params["Kp"] from the named tuple, or they can be unpacked using Kp, Ti, Td = values(params).

See also loopshapingPI

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ControlSystemsBase.stabregionPIDFunction
kp, ki, fig = stabregionPID(P, [ω]; kd=0, doplot=false, form=:standard)

Segments of the curve generated by this program is the boundary of the stability region for a process with transfer function P(s) The provided derivative gain is expected on parallel form, i.e., the form kp + ki/s + kd s, but the result can be transformed to any form given by the form keyword. The curve is found by analyzing

$$$P(s)C(s) = -1 ⟹ \\ |PC| = |P| |C| = 1 \\ arg(P) + arg(C) = -π$$$

If P is a function (e.g. s -> exp(-sqrt(s)) ), the stability of feedback loops using PI-controllers can be analyzed for processes with models with arbitrary analytic functions See also loopshapingPI, loopshapingPID, pidplots

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ControlSystemsBase.sminrealMethod
sminreal(sys)

Compute the structurally minimal realization of the state-space system sys. A structurally minimal realization is one where only states that can be determined to be uncontrollable and unobservable based on the location of 0s in sys are removed.

Systems with numerical noise in the coefficients, e.g., noise on the order of eps require truncation to zero to be affected by structural simplification, e.g.,

trunc_zero!(A) = A[abs.(A) .< 10eps(maximum(abs, A))] .= 0
trunc_zero!(sys.A); trunc_zero!(sys.B); trunc_zero!(sys.C)
sminreal(sys)

In contrast to minreal, which performs pole-zero cancellation using linear-algebra operations, has an 𝑂(nₓ^3) complexity and is subject to numerical tolerances, sminreal is computationally very cheap and numerically exact (operates on integers). However, the ability of sminreal to reduce the order of the model is much less powerful.

See also minreal.

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ControlSystemsBase.add_inputFunction
add_input(sys::AbstractStateSpace, B2::AbstractArray, D2 = 0)

Add inputs to sys by forming

\begin{aligned} x' &= Ax + [B \; B_2]u \\ y &= Cx + [D \; D_2]u \\ \end{aligned}

If B2 is an integer it will be interpreted as an index and an input matrix containing a single 1 at the specified index will be used.

Example: The following example forms an innovation model that takes innovations as inputs

G   = ssrand(2,2,3, Ts=1)
K   = kalman(G, I(G.nx), I(G.ny))
sys = add_input(G, K)
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ControlSystemsBase.add_outputFunction
add_output(sys::AbstractStateSpace, C2::AbstractArray, D2 = 0)

Add outputs to sys by forming

\begin{aligned} x' &= Ax + Bu \\ y &= [C; C_2]x + [D; D_2]u \\ \end{aligned}

If C2 is an integer it will be interpreted as an index and an output matrix containing a single 1 at the specified index will be used.

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ControlSystemsBase.feedbackMethod
feedback(sys1::AbstractStateSpace, sys2::AbstractStateSpace;
U1=:, Y1=:, U2=:, Y2=:, W1=:, Z1=:, W2=Int[], Z2=Int[],
Wperm=:, Zperm=:, pos_feedback::Bool=false)

Basic use feedback(sys1, sys2) forms the (negative) feedback interconnection

           ┌──────────────┐
◄──────────┤     sys1     │◄──── Σ ◄──────
│      │              │      │
│      └──────────────┘      -1
│                            |
│      ┌──────────────┐      │
└─────►│     sys2     ├──────┘
│              │
└──────────────┘

If no second system sys2 is given, negative identity feedback (sys2 = 1) is assumed. The returned closed-loop system will have a state vector comprised of the state of sys1 followed by the state of sys2.

Advanced use feedback also supports more flexible use according to the figure below

              ┌──────────────┐
z1◄─────┤     sys1     │◄──────w1
┌─── y1◄─────┤              │◄──────u1 ◄─┐
│            └──────────────┘            │
│                                        α
│            ┌──────────────┐            │
└──► u2─────►│     sys2     ├───────►y2──┘
w2─────►│              ├───────►z2
└──────────────┘

U1, W1 specifies the indices of the input signals of sys1 corresponding to u1 and w1 Y1, Z1 specifies the indices of the output signals of sys1 corresponding to y1 and z1 U2, W2, Y2, Z2 specifies the corresponding signals of sys2

Specify Wperm and Zperm to reorder the inputs (corresponding to [w1; w2]) and outputs (corresponding to [z1; z2]) in the resulting statespace model.

Negative feedback (α = -1) is the default. Specify pos_feedback=true for positive feedback (α = 1).

See also lft, starprod, sensitivity, input_sensitivity, output_sensitivity, comp_sensitivity, input_comp_sensitivity, output_comp_sensitivity, G_PS, G_CS.

The manual section From block diagrams to code contains higher-level instructions on how to use this function.

See Zhou, Doyle, Glover (1996) for similar (somewhat less symmetric) formulas.

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ControlSystemsBase.feedbackMethod
feedback(sys)
feedback(sys1, sys2)

For a general LTI-system, feedback forms the negative feedback interconnection

>-+ sys1 +-->
|      |
(-)sys2 +

If no second system is given, negative identity feedback is assumed

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ControlSystemsBase.feedback2dofMethod
feedback2dof(P,R,S,T)
feedback2dof(B,A,R,S,T)
• Return BT/(AR+ST) where B and A are the numerator and denominator polynomials of P respectively
• Return BT/(AR+ST)
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ControlSystemsBase.feedback2dofMethod
feedback2dof(P::TransferFunction, C::TransferFunction, F::TransferFunction)

Return the transfer function P(F+C)/(1+PC) which is the closed-loop system with process P, controller C and feedforward filter F from reference to control signal (by-passing C).

         +-------+
|       |
+----->   F   +----+
|     |       |    |
|     +-------+    |
|     +-------+    |    +-------+
r  |  -  |       |    |    |       |    y
+--+----->   C   +----+---->   P   +---+-->
|  |       |         |       |   |
|  +-------+         +-------+   |
|                                |
+--------------------------------+
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ControlSystemsBase.lftFunction
lft(G, Δ, type=:l)

Lower and upper linear fractional transformation between systems G and Δ.

Specify :l lor lower LFT, and :u for upper LFT.

G must have more inputs and outputs than Δ has outputs and inputs.

For details, see Chapter 9.1 in Zhou, K. and JC Doyle. Essentials of robust control, Prentice hall (NJ), 1998

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ControlSystemsBase.starprodMethod
starprod(sys1, sys2, dimu, dimy)

Compute the Redheffer star product.

length(U1) = length(Y2) = dimu and length(Y1) = length(U2) = dimy

For details, see Chapter 9.3 in Zhou, K. and JC Doyle. Essentials of robust control, Prentice hall (NJ), 1998

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ControlSystemsBase.G_CSMethod
G_CS(P, C)

The closed-loop transfer function from (-) measurement noise or (+) reference to control signal. Technically, the transfer function is given by (1 + CP)⁻¹C so SC would be a better, but nonstandard name.

         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.G_PSMethod
G_PS(P, C)

The closed-loop transfer function from load disturbance to plant output. Technically, the transfer function is given by (1 + PC)⁻¹P so SP would be a better, but nonstandard name.

         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.comp_sensitivityMethod
         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.extended_gangoffourFunction
extended_gangoffour(P, C, pos=true)

Returns a single statespace system that maps

• w1 reference or measurement noise
• w2 load disturbance

to

• z1 control error
• z2 control input
      z1          z2
▲  ┌─────┐  ▲      ┌─────┐
│  │     │  │      │     │
w1──+─┴─►│  C  ├──┴───+─►│  P  ├─┐
│    │     │      │  │     │ │
│    └─────┘      │  └─────┘ │
│                 w2         │
└────────────────────────────┘

The returned system has the transfer-function matrix

$$$\begin{bmatrix} I \\ C \end{bmatrix} (I + PC)^{-1} \begin{bmatrix} I & P \end{bmatrix}$$$

or in code

# For SISO P
S  = G[1, 1]
PS = G[1, 2]
CS = G[2, 1]
T  = G[2, 2]

# For MIMO P
S  = G[1:P.ny,     1:P.nu]
PS = G[1:P.ny,     P.ny+1:end]
CS = G[P.ny+1:end, 1:P.ny]
T  = G[P.ny+1:end, P.ny+1:end] # Input complimentary sensitivity function

The gang of four can be plotted like so

Gcl = extended_gangoffour(G, C) # Form closed-loop system
bodeplot(Gcl, lab=["S" "CS" "PS" "T"], plotphase=false) |> display # Plot gang of four

Note, the last input of Gcl is the negative of the PS and T transfer functions from gangoffour2. To get a transfer matrix with the same sign as G_PS and input_comp_sensitivity, call extended_gangoffour(P, C, pos=false). See glover_mcfarlane from RobustAndOptimalControl.jl for an extended example. See also ncfmargin and feedback_control from RobustAndOptimalControl.jl.

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ControlSystemsBase.input_comp_sensitivityMethod
input_comp_sensitivity(P,C)

Transfer function from load disturbance to control signal.

• "Input" signifies that the transfer function is from the input of the plant.
• "Complimentary" signifies that the transfer function is to an output (in this case controller output)
         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.input_sensitivityMethod
input_sensitivity(P, C)

Transfer function from load disturbance to total plant input.

• "Input" signifies that the transfer function is from the input of the plant.
         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.output_comp_sensitivityMethod
output_comp_sensitivity(P,C)

Transfer function from measurement noise / reference to plant output.

• "output" signifies that the transfer function is from the output of the plant.
• "Complimentary" signifies that the transfer function is to an output (in this case plant output)
         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.output_sensitivityMethod
output_sensitivity(P, C)

Transfer function from measurement noise / reference to control error.

• "output" signifies that the transfer function is from the output of the plant.
         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.sensitivityMethod

The output sensitivity function $S_o = (I + PC)^{-1}$ is the transfer function from a reference input to control error, while the input sensitivity function $S_i = (I + CP)^{-1}$ is the transfer function from a disturbance at the plant input to the total plant input. For SISO systems, input and output sensitivity functions are equal. In general, we want to minimize the sensitivity function to improve robustness and performance, but practical constraints always cause the sensitivity function to tend to 1 for high frequencies. A robust design minimizes the peak of the sensitivity function, $M_S$. The peak magnitude of $S$ is the inverse of the distance between the open-loop Nyquist curve and the critical point -1. Upper bounding the sensitivity peak $M_S$ gives lower-bounds on phase and gain margins according to

$$$ϕ_m ≥ 2\text{sin}^{-1}(\frac{1}{2M_S}), g_m ≥ \frac{M_S}{M_S-1}$$$

Generally, bounding $M_S$ is a better objective than looking at gain and phase margins due to the possibility of combined gain and pahse variations, which may lead to poor robustness despite large gain and pahse margins.

         ▲
│e₁
│  ┌─────┐
d₁────+──┴──►  P  ├─────┬──►e₄
│     └─────┘     │
│                 │
│     ┌─────┐    -│
e₂◄──┴─────┤  C  ◄──┬──+───d₂
└─────┘  │
│e₃
▼
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ControlSystemsBase.bodevMethod

bodev(sys::LTISystem, w::AbstractVector; \$(Expr(:kw, :unwrap, true)))

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as bode but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.bodevMethod

bodev(sys::LTISystem; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as bode but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.freqrespvMethod

freqrespv(G::AbstractMatrix, w_vec::AbstractVector{<:Real}; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as freqresp but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.freqrespvMethod

freqrespv(G::Number, w_vec::AbstractVector{<:Real}; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as freqresp but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.freqrespvMethod

freqrespv(sys::LTISystem, w_vec::AbstractVector{W}; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as freqresp but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.nyquistvMethod

nyquistv(sys::LTISystem, w::AbstractVector; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as nyquist but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.sigmavMethod

sigmav(sys::LTISystem, w::AbstractVector; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as sigma but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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ControlSystemsBase.sigmavMethod

sigmav(sys::LTISystem; )

For use with SISO systems where it acts the same as sigma` but with the extra dimensions removed in the returned values.

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